The Myth of “Humane” Meat

This is a guest post by Claire Holzner, originally published at The Vegetarian and Vegan Association (VAVA) blog at http://vegetarianandvegan.org/2016/06/humane-meat/

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We know that factory farms are terrible places. Animals are crammed by the thousands into sheds, bred and manipulated in unnatural ways, and usually killed before they are fully-grown adults. These huge farms also produce immense amounts of pollution, all for the sake of meat and dairy products which are often contaminated –- so we compassionate consumers try not to buy from such places, right? You want a better alternative, so you buy local or “humanely raised” meat at a co-op or farmers’ market. You make this effort because you care about your health, the environment, and probably also about animals. You prefer that animals have decent living conditions and a swift, painless death. If you take your concern for animals to its logical conclusion, you would not eat them at all.

Killing animals for food is not necessary. When you buy “humane” animal products you are still paying for animals to be killed needlessly as there is no nutrient in meat, dairy products, or eggs that we can’t get from plant foods, and in cleaner forms. (Vegans do need to get vitamin B12 via supplements or fortified foods, but so do many meat-eaters. B12 is not an animal product.) Foods made from animals’ bodies contain many non-essential and unhealthy substances, such as growth hormones (some added, some naturally present), cholesterol, and saturated fat, which are not found in foods made from plants.

Labels like “humane certified,” “cage-free,” “grass-fed,” and “free range” imply large differences from factory farming practices which do not exist. The animals raised in these alternative ways might have more space or be able to go outdoors, but in fact there are more similarities to factory farming than differences. Procedures like tail-docking, de-beaking, and other mutilations without anesthetic; total denial of natural behaviors; and brutal transport conditions are routine even on “humane” farms, but would be considered immoral if done to dogs or cats. And all farm animals, including dairy cows and egg-laying hens, are slaughtered while they are still young animals.

When we buy from “humane” farms we are still relying on farmers and meat producers to define for us what they are doing to the animals, but until we visit the farms and slaughterhouses we really have no idea. The labels and certifications are not rigorously enforced or backed by institutions that truly value animal welfare. Those who sell “humane” animal products profit from our concerns about factory farming practices and thus are not reliable sources of information about how the animals lived and died.

“Humane slaughter” is an oxymoron. There is no “humane” (compassionate, merciful, or kind) way to kill a creature who does not want to die. All animals fear death. “Humane” meat does not come from animals that lived a full life and died of natural causes or were euthanized. All of those animals were killed well before the time of their natural death.

Could you kill a pig, chicken, cow, or turkey, by yourself? If not, why pay someone to do it for you? How humane is a farmer who has treated an animal relatively well and even allowed the animal to develop a trusting relationship, yet sends him or her off to be slaughtered? What a betrayal of trust. Let the animals live and find something else to eat for dinner.

For most people eating animals is the most egregious form of violence they ever commit. Most people don’t rob, rape, or murder people. We want to think of ourselves as kind, compassionate, and fair — yet in our society most people, every day, unthinkingly cause animals to be killed and mistreated to obtain their flesh and milk and eggs. This unnecessary violence underlies our lives and its effects seep into our psyches and our behavior. If we eat animals, we are always trying to justify, consciously or unconsciously, our harshness and cruelty. When we end the daily violence of confining, commodifying, and killing animals, our society will be much less competitive, unfair, and harsh. Seventy percent of the grain and legumes grown world-wide is fed to farm animals, who very inefficiently convert the nutrients into animal “products.” Water use is highly inefficient as well in this conversion. Fully fifty percent of the water used world-wide for all purposes is used for animal agriculture. When we stop breeding farm animals more food will be available for hungry people and there will be less conflict for scarce water and fuel resources. We already have the tools and knowledge needed to create a more peaceful, fair, and loving society; we just need to use them.

Don’t look for a better way to do a bad thing: instead, look beyond the two common options of factory farm products and “humane” animal products. Taking animals’ interests seriously means opting out of animal agriculture. If you haven’t yet, try going vegan for a week or two. We are fortunate to have access to such an abundance of plant-based foods that eating a healthy vegan diet is surprisingly easy and involves no sense of deprivation. So many books, websites, recipes online, vegan products, and caring people are available to help us get the violence out of our diets and to help us create a kinder, more conscious society.

Growing Ahimsa Veganically by Kelle Kersten

Note: This article was originally published in American Vegan, Fall 2015.

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Ahimsa Village homestead

In 2005 my husband and I set out to create Ahimsa Village, a vegan community and sustainable living education center, in the mountains of central Pennsylvania. We purposely chose the word Ahimsa, the Sanskrit word for “nonviolence”, because we aspired to embody nonviolence in all aspects of our lives. The Village part of the name signified our vision of a group of people with a variety of different interests and skills coming together to establish a sustainable and relatively self-sufficient community. Although the community has not yet manifested, we have planted and nurtured several gardens, a fruit and nut orchard, and a blueberry patch, providing much of our food, especially in the warmer months. We have also conducted many educational programs over the years. It seems that we are evolving into being a resource for vegan homesteading. In this article I will share some of my thoughts about our veganic growing practices and veganic growing in general.

The word veganic merges “vegan” with “organic.” Like organic growing, veganic growing does not use any of the chemical fertilizers, pesticides, genetically engineered materials, sewage sludge, or irradiated materials that are used by conventional growers; and it emphasizes maintaining the health of the soil in order to grow healthy plants. However, veganic growing goes beyond organic growing in that it endeavors to minimize and/or eliminate harm to animals. As a way of explaining the important elements of veganic growing, I will look at veganic growing from three different levels. In actuality, these levels are not clearly separate, but the separation aids in the explanation.

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Ahimsa veganic garden

The first level involves the materials used in growing crops. Since veganic growers do not want to be part of any animal suffering, they do not use any materials that are derived from animals. Instead of using materials such as manure, blood meal, bonemeal, feathermeal, and fish emulsion, veganic growers use plant materials for fertilization. I use grass and hay mulch, plant-based compost, green manures (crops, such as buckwheat and clover, that are cultivated into the soil or left on the surface to provide nutrients for the food crops), crop residues, and comfrey tea (water from soaked comfrey plants) to nourish my crops. When I first began to grow veganically I called a local fertilizer manufacturer to inquire about the availability of fertilizer without any materials from animals that I could add to my potting mix. The salesperson actually seemed irate with me for even thinking about growing without manure and other materials from animals. So I blended my own potting soil using peat, perlite, vermiculite, and alfalfa meal. A few years later I found a local company that made potting soil out of coir (coconut husk), perlite, and other plant based materials. After using that potting mix for a couple years, the company added a fertilizer blend to their potting mixes that contained bloodmeal and bonemeal. Accordingly I went back to blending my own mix, using what I thought was plant-based compost from the local town. This year I found out that the town collects kitchen waste and composts it with the yard waste, and so there may be small amounts of animal foods in the compost. I use a large amount of this compost because I also apply it to my garden beds. I am questioning whether or not I should be a strict veganic grower and not use the compost or be more flexible since the compost is still mostly plant material. Ideally I would make enough compost myself and not have to import compost. Therefore one of my future goals involves developing a method for composting our copious weeds. I contemplate also transitioning to more of a permaculture system (creating gardens that follow the patterns of natural ecosystems) in which crops would eventually self-fertilize, thereby eliminating the need for applying compost.

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Veganic basil

The second level of veganic growing flows naturally from veganism and ahimsa: Veganic growers hold a clear intention to avoid or minimize harming animals in and around the garden. In my gardens and orchard I use fences, netting, hardware cloth, and floating row covers to exclude animals. I also grow a variety of flowers around the garden to attract beneficial insects. Additionally, I rotate crops and grow a diversity of crop species, helping to keep pest populations low enough that crop damage is generally minimal.

I disclose that I use diatomaceous earth (DE) to prevent slugs from decimating my young seedlings. The organic mulch creates the perfect environment for slugs and every year their population explodes. Before using DE I had an entire planting of lettuce totally eaten down to soil level overnight. Hence, in spite of my conflicted feelings about causing harm to slugs, I apply DE to most of my seedlings after transplanting or germination. I quit applying it when the plants are big enough to survive predation. I also take care to not harm nontarget species such as bees by never applying DE to plants when they are flowering and not applying it on a windy day.

Garlic

Veganic garlic

Protecting the soil with its community of living creatures constitutes another important aspect of veganic gardening. Because any disturbance of the soil, such as tilling, will adversely affect the soil community, vegan growers minimize tillage. They also protect the soil from erosion and drying out by keeping the soil covered with plants and mulch. Since establishing my gardens I have not done any rototilling in my main garden. I try to keep mulch on the beds most of the time, transplanting directly into the mulch with minimal soil disturbance. For direct-seeded crops like carrots and beets I clear away the mulch, loosen the soil with a shovel, plant the seeds, and then replace the mulch when the plants are big enough to not be buried.

The third level of veganic growing has to do with the relationship the grower has with the animals and plants in the garden. I am aware of people that communicate with the spirits of animals and negotiate sharing of produce from the garden. Instead of waging war against the animals, the humans respect the animals and honor their need for food. Similarly, when people are in touch with the spirits of their plants, they find out specifically what the plants need for optimum growth and are then able provide what is needed. While I am open to the possibility of this type of communion with plants and animals and also recognize its value for creating an ethos of ahimsa, as of yet I have not experienced it myself.

In closing I will touch on an aspect of veganic gardening that is often forgotten: Ahimsa includes compassion toward ourselves as well as toward animals. I can be very hard on myself for not being the “perfect” veganic gardener.” This attitude leads to feelings of anxiety, deficiency, frustration, and a mental state that is not conducive to envisioning creative ways to enact ahimsa more fully in my growing practices. Therefore, in the spirit of ahimsa, I aim to accept my imperfections and remain open to discerning more compassionate ways of gardening veganically.

Veganic Gardening Resources
Organic Vegan Network, www.veganorganic.net
Veganic Agriculture Network, www.goveganic.net
www.veganic.com

 

Late summer pictures of gardens and homestead

We’ve had a pretty good garden year thanks to the regular rain this summer.  Take a visual tour of our veganic homestead…

Ahimsa Village –Gardens and orchard after severe winter

Amazon Review of Will Tuttle’s World Peace Diet book

The following review was written by Kelle of the World Peace Diet by Will Tuttle.  Originally posted on Amazon.com.

World Peace Diet bookThe World Peace Diet is a must read for any environmentalist, social activist, animal rights activist, and spiritual seeker. Dr. Tuttle masterfully presents a compelling premise that all of our environmental and social problems, including global warming and war, are rooted in a cultural mentality of reductionism, anthropocentrism, exclusivism, predation, desensitization, disconnectedness, and domination. According to Dr. Tuttle, our culture started developing this mentality around 10,000 years ago as humans began herding animals for food, clothing, and other human needs, and then this mentality spread to treating humans and the environment in similar exploitative ways. While it is impossible to irrevocably “prove” that herding animals “caused” war, violence against women, slavery, inequality, poverty, and other social issues, what is clearly undeniable after reading this book are the contemporary connections between animal agriculture and environmental issues, between eating animal foods and human health issues, and between animal agriculture and the tremendous suffering experienced by animals. Yet most people deny these connections. Dr.Tuttle explains the reasons for this denial: People inherit their animal-based diets from their parents along with the cultural mentality that diminishes their natural compassion for animals. Their diets and this uncompassionate mentality are reinforced as they grow up by teachers, doctors, religious organizations, peers, and the media. With the suppression of compassion, people see animals as things to be used to benefit humans rather than as beings with as much of an intrinsic right as humans to live for themselves in the way that nature designed them to live. With the suppression of compassion people see the environment as a resource to be used for human benefit rather than as the intricate web of living beings and non-living materials that support life on this planet. With the suppression of compassion people see other people as things that can be manipulated to serve selfish interests rather than as beings with lives and interests as valid as one’s own. This book beautifully shows how it is this loss of compassion and the subsequent blindness to the interconnections of all beings and the earth that underlie all the world’s problems. Dr. Tuttle calls for a vegan revolution to address these problems. This revolution goes far beyond refraining from using non-human animals for food, clothing, medicines, entertainment, etc. It is truly an evolution of consciousness, an expansion of humanity’s love and concern to include all beings and the earth. I have not read any other book that so powerfully shows the connection between all of our problems and the beautiful simplicity of the solution.

This is not just another animal rights book telling people to quit eating and wearing animals. It goes to the heart of humanity’s destructive and elitist relationship with the rest of the world and guides people to recognize our real relationship of interconnectedness and to live from that realization. Dr. Tuttle respects the difficulty that people will have with going against their acculturation by becoming vegan, and directs vegans to lovingly support them as they transition rather than to aggressively attack them for not being vegan. Throughout the book he paints a vision of a joyful and harmonious vegan world based on love and connection rather than exploitation and disconnection. People are asked to give up using animals, but by doing so, they will help co-create a more harmonious and joyful world for themselves and other creatures.

Kelle’s Seed-Starting Methods

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Newly started Kale plants under lights

Seed starting and transplanting times are based on the last frost date in my microclimate in the mountains of Central Pennsylvania. Readers in areas that are frost-free in May can plant and transplant earlier. Warm weather crops could also be planted and transplanted earlier and protected with row cover.

Mid-March-Start cool weather crops (lettuce, kale, collards, cabbage, broccoli, spinach, kohlrabi, cauliflower, brussel sprouts, pac choi, and parsley) and tender crops that take a longer time to grow (celery, celaraic, herbs)

Lettuce plants

Lettuce plants

Mid-April-Start warm weather crops (tomatoes, eggplant, peppers, basil) and second crop lettuce

Containers-6-packs for most crops; 6 oz yogurt containers with holes punched in bottom for plants that grow larger (tomatoes, peppers, eggplant), and flats for onions and leeks

  • Reusing containers-Before each planting wash thoroughly with soap and water, sanitize with white vinegar, and rinse

Potting Mix-1part sifted compost, 1 part peat moss, ½ part perlite

  • Mix in water until all material is moist—Mix should remain loose and not be sticky when squeezed

Planting Seeds (6 packs and yogurt cups)

  • Fill to top; press mix down gently; add more mix and press down again; level should be slightly below the top (1/8-1/4 inch) to prevent water from running off during watering
  • Make small depression in center of container, plant seed, push mix from edge of depression to cover, pat down
  • Water thoroughly until water runs out bottom of containers

Planting Seeds (flats)

  • Fill flats half way; press down gently; add more mix and press down again; level should be about half of flat; sprinkle seeds as evenly as you can on surface, spread a light layer of mix over top of seeds; pat down
  • Water thoroughly until water runs out the bottom of the flat; check that all seeds remain covered
  • I plant fairly densely—1/16 oz packet of seeds per flat—and get many plants; plant less densely if you want fewer plants

Grow Lights (3-Tier Stand)

  • (2) 4-foot fluorescent light fixtures (with 2 bulbs each) for each tier
  • Cool white bulbs-no need to buy more expensive daylight bulbs
  • Containers sit on 26X18 inch restaurant trays; 2 trays per tier
Homemade 3-tiered grow stand

Homemade 3-tier grow stand built out of 2x4s

18" x 26" x 1" fiberglass trays

18″ x 26″ x 1″ fiberglass trays – we have found that the fiberglass ones last a lot longer than the plastic ones.  You can find used ones on ebay.

Grow Lights (2 Tier Stand)

  • (1) 4-foot fluorescent light fixtures (with 2 bulbs each) for each tier
  • Each tier has a removable tray so no need for restaurant trays
2-tier stand from Gardeners.com (donated by a friend)

2-tier stand from Gardeners.com (donated by a friend). This retails for over $500.  We recommend building one over buying one.

Seedling Care

  • Check need for water every day: water when soil surface is lighter brown
  • Turn lights on when seedlings germinate-start with lights about ¼-1/2 inch above plants
  • Lights are on 14 hours/day (around 6:15 am to 8:15 pm)
  • Raise lights as plants grow
  • Temperature-I have wood heat so the temperature fluctuates between 60 and 73 degrees; peppers do okay but prefer warmer temperature

Hardening Off

  • 1-2 weeks before transplanting
  • Plants are very sensitive to direct sunlight at first so gradually increase their exposure to sunlight
  • Plants are also not as resistant to frost at this stage, even hardy plants like kale
  • I have a table where I set my plants outdoors and cover with shade cloth during the time of day when sun is most intense; as plants get more used to sun, I leave them uncovered longer
  • If forecast predicts temperatures to go below freezing, I bring my plants onto my back porch at night and take back outside in morning when temperatures rise above freezing again
  • Continue to check need for watering regularly especially if it is a hot, sunny day

Transplanting

  • Cool weather crops-mid to late April-use row cover to protect lettuce from frost; erratic weather patterns have made it difficult to harden off plants, so now I cover even the hardy plants
  • Warm weather crops-June

Direct Seeding

  • Snap Peas, Carrots, Beets, Radishes, Bunching Onions, Turnips-early to mid April-except for peas, cover with row cover for frost protection
  • Arugula-May
  • Squash, cucumbers-June

Kelle Kersten lives and gardens veganically with her husband at their vegan homestead Ahimsa Village (www.ahimsavillage.org) in the mountains of central Pennsylvania.

World Peace Diet and Vegan Food Production

We are currently studying Will Tuttle’s book World Peace Diet: Eating For Spiritual Health And Social Harmony.  He sees eating and food as the ultimate spiritual practice/act as we literally become our food, we embody our food (i.e. “we are what we eat” on all levels).  He makes the case that the historical development of herding, breeding, and killing animals for food is the fundamental disconnect between ourselves and the rest of the natural world.  The commodification and killing of animals has laid the foundation of the dominant world culture (Western Industrial Civilization) that views animals, nature, and humans as resources to be used and exploited for power and financial gain.  He theorizes that we have to deny/bury our authentic selves (more loving and compassionate) in order to continue with this business of commodifying and killing/consuming animals (apx. 75 million animals a day are killed for food) to feed most of us everyday.  The fundamental single thing that we can do for ourselves, the planet, and the animals is, of course, giving up meat/dairy consumption and switching to a vegan diet.  Tuttle’s thesis is provocative and has gotten us thinking about veganism on a deeper level.  Here’s a video to a talk he gave at Villanova that gives a good overview of his philosophy:

After reading this book (and others by vegan writers) it got us thinking about what about veganic food?  Where are vegans getting their food?  For the most part they are getting it mostly from large scale commercial farms that most likely use animal products and manure on their farms and may also be engaged in animal agriculture.   To “complete the cycle” of veganism there really needs to be veganic farms that produce “humane” food i.e. food production that does not involve animal exploitation. We feel we are a very small part of this movement here on our veganic homestead.

 

Maple Sugaring Season

We are in the midst of our maple sugaring season at Ahimsa homestead and its been a strange one!  Maple sugaring season generally runs from late February to mid-to-late March in our part of the world (Central Pennsylvania) however this year’s been different.  We tapped when we always do – late February.  It was a nice, sunny winter day and the flow was good.  Then it got cold, very cold – highs below freezing – for a couple weeks.  The taps stopped cold literally!  The weather has been erratic ever since – mostly too cold for good flows.  So we’ve been boiling whenever we get enough to make a few quarts (the ratio is approximately 40:1 – 40 gals of sap = 1 gal. of syrup).  We usually wait until we have enough to make a couple gallons before firing up our small maple arch.

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Finished syrup

The process is a pretty simple one.  Basically it involves tapping the trees, hanging buckets, gathering the sap daily.  Once we get enough to do a boil we fire up our small maple arch (we use dead pine wood), get a good rolling boil going, and boiling it down until its close to syrup.  We take it off and finish it in the kitchen (in our opinion its too risky to boil it down to syrup in the pan – we’ve lost a couple batches trying to do this).  We have a lot more control in the kitchen.  We use a maple hydrometer to test the density of the syrup (66% sugar content).  When its done we take it off and can it.

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Boiling sap in our maple arch.

Boiling sap in our maple arch.

Every year we are always happy to have people come out and help with the process!

Check out our Maple Sugaring 2014 photo album.

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